Most of us don’t know how to a desktop or laptop computer work but it is now essential part of our life. So we must know Computer Basic Parts and Functions.
Primarily, a computer is divided into two parts-
The hardware consists of that components which have physical existence, you can touch it and feel it. On the other hand, software does not have physical existence. Actually, software is the programs which give commands to your computer, but you cannot feel or touch it.
In this article we shall discuss about the Hardware components and their functions into four parts.
The following topics will be discussed:
- Computer Case
- Random Access Memory (RAM)
- DVD and Blu-ray drives having writing capabilities
- Display and display adapter
Computer case is the container of your computer as it contains the motherboard, the hard drive, the processor, random access memory modules etc.
Motherboard controls the functions of different components of your computer, such as the processor, memory modules, expansion cards and external devices. Some important features of the motherboard are written below:
- Quantity and category of hook-ups for peripheral devices
- Quantity of memory module slots in the RAM
- The motherboard contains a small battery to confirm the preservation of the settings to the motherboard even when it is turned off.
Processor determines the speed of your computer by the clock frequency (typically expressed as gigahertz or GHz), the amount of cores and the cache memory inside in the processor. The Main function of processor is written below:
- The processor fetches instructions and essential information from the RAM
- It carries out the tasks specified by the commands
- It returns the processed information to the RAM.
- Actually, the lion’s share of information processing is executed by the processor
Random Access Memory(RAM)
Random Access Memory or RAM is volatile memory storage. It functions when a computer is used which is utilized by the processor. While turning on the computer, the operating system is loaded into the RAM. Other files such as- music, assignments, videos, etc. are also loaded into the RAM. Depending on the type and purpose of the computer, the amount of RAM is around 4 – 16 GB in modern computers. Execution of requests, tasks depends on the free space of your RAM. If there is enough RAM, then the requested tasks are executed quickly otherwise the execution rate will be slow.
Now you may want to find out the amount of RAM on your computer. If you are using windows, then you have to follow the following steps to find out the amount of RAM:
Go to start menu
Open the Control panel
Click on system and security
Go to system
Click on view amount of RAM and processor speed
On the other hand, if you are using a Mac computer, then click on the Mac button in the top left corner of the screen and then click on “About this Mac” in the opening menu to see the amount of RAM.
RAM is the volatile memory and hard disk is the permanent memory of a computer. In hard-disk, saved files remain even after the turning off the computer.
Hard disks of different size are available in the market. Now the typical size available hard disks in the market are 500-1000 GB or 1500 GB, i.e. 1.5 terabyte.
For the safety of your saved files on the hard disks, specific discs are fixed into a protective casing in the hard disks. But this protection is not enough because if your hard disks become damaged, you may lose all the information that was saved in. So it is better to keep backup copies of the files.
DVD and Blu-ray drives having writing capabilities
CD drives have mostly been replaced with DVD drives now-a-days. CD drives have a substantially smaller storage capacity and it can only burn data on CDs, but DVD drives have more capacity than the CD drive and it can burn data to both CDs and DVDs. That’s why,today most computers come with a DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) or Blu-ray drive with writing capabilities. You can burn such things as backup copies of important files to DVDs.
Display and display adapter
Today, most computers have Liquid Crystal Display, abbreviated as LCD displays. In LCD monitor, the image is formed by liquid crystals between two transparent sheets.
An important feature of the display is its resolution, i.e. how many pixels are needed to consist of the image. A normal 22 to 24-inch widescreen display typically has 1920 pixels on horizontal side and 1200 pixels on the vertical side.
Besides display, every computer must comprise a display adapter. Display adapter lets you to attach the display to the computer and controls the display image. Actually, all motherboards come equipped with a display adapter. That’s why it is unnecessary to buy one separately, unless you want to improve the capabilities of your desktop computer, e.g. for 3D imaging purposes, gaming or video editing.